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Andrei Calazans

An experimment: Rust basics by ChatGPT

/ 45 min read


In my spare time I have been learning Rust. Its knowledge intersection with C, C++, and Haskell make it a fun language to learn.

The one thing that stood out during this process though has been my usage of ChatGPT to instruct me. Instead of reading a pre-published book I simply had ChatGPT write the book as I dove into each subject.

This post is the entire conversation I had with ChatGPT. Particularly its responses.

You can see the code I wrote based on these instructions here.

ps: I don’t even know what to say about copyright. This entire thing was simply spit out by ChatGPT and my job in this was simply validating everything it said and trying out its code samples

Initial Prompt

You are specialized Rust engineer with tons of experience. You will tutor me on how to write great software with Rust. You will teach me all the basics to the advanced topics. You will be direct to the point and write cleaer examples for your explanations. Every code example you write will be accompanied for another example for me to complete so I can get the point.

Let’s start by you first giving me a list of topics to cover, from the very basics to the most advanced

Certainly! Here’s the roadmap for learning Rust, formatted in Markdown:

Rust Learning Roadmap


  1. Setup and Installation
    • Learn how to install Rust and set up your development environment.
  2. Hello World
    • Your first Rust program.
  3. Basic Syntax
    • Understanding Rust’s syntax and keywords.
  4. Variables and Mutability
    • Learn about variable declaration, mutability, and constants.
  5. Data Types
    • Explore basic data types like integers, floats, booleans, and characters.
  6. Functions
    • How to define and use functions.
  7. Control Flow
    • If, else, and loop constructs.


  1. Ownership and Borrowing
    • Core concepts of Rust’s memory safety.
  2. Structs
    • Define and use structures.
  3. Enums
    • Enumeration types and pattern matching.
  4. Error Handling
    • Using Result and Option types.
  5. Collections
    • Working with vectors, strings, and hash maps.
  6. Modules and Crates
    • Understand Rust’s modularity and package management.


  1. Advanced Features
    • Traits, lifetimes, and closures.
  2. Concurrency
    • Threads, async, and await.
  3. Unsafe Rust
    • Understanding unsafe operations.
  4. Advanced Type System
    • Generics, trait bounds, and type aliases.
  5. Macros
    • Writing and using macros.
  6. Integration with Other Languages
    • FFI with C/C++.
  7. Testing
    • Unit tests, integration tests, and documentation tests.

Expert Level

  1. Advanced Concurrency Patterns
    • Dive deeper into advanced concurrency models.
  2. Performance Optimization
    • Profiling and optimizing Rust code.
  3. Embedded Programming
    • Rust in embedded systems.
  4. WebAssembly
    • Compiling Rust to WebAssembly.
  5. Domain-Specific Applications
    • Using Rust in network programming, web development, etc.

Project-Based Learning

  • Create a small CLI application.
  • Build a multi-threaded web server.
  • Contribute to an open-source Rust project.

Starting Point: Hello World in Rust

Example: Hello World Program

fn main() {
    println!("Hello, world!");

Your Exercise: Custom Greeting

Create a Rust program that prints a custom greeting message, like “Hello, [Your Name]!“.

Basic Syntax in Rust

Rust’s syntax is influenced by several languages like C++, but it has its unique features and style. Let’s cover some of the key aspects.

1. Variables

  • Variables are immutable by default. Use let to declare a variable.
  • To make a variable mutable, use mut.

Example: Immutable and Mutable Variables

fn main() {
    let x = 5; // immutable
    println!("The value of x is: {}", x);

    let mut y = 5; // mutable
    println!("The value of y is: {}", y);
    y = 10;
    println!("The value of y is: {}", y);

Your Exercise: Play with Variables

Create a Rust program where you declare an immutable variable with your favorite number and a mutable variable with your age. Then, change the age variable and print both values.

2. Functions

  • Functions are declared with fn and use snake case naming convention.
  • Each function in Rust has a return type. The return value of the function is the value of the final expression in the function body.

Example: Function Definition

fn main() {
    let result = sum(5, 6);
    println!("The sum is: {}", result);

fn sum(a: i32, b: i32) -> i32 {
    a + b // no semicolon implies this is the return value

Your Exercise: Create a Function

Write a function that takes two string slices (&str) and concatenates them. Print the result in the main function.


  • Use // for single-line comments and /* */ for multi-line comments.

Example: Comments

fn main() {
    // This is a single-line comment
    let x = 5;

    /* This is a
       multi-line comment */
    println!("The value of x is: {}", x);

Your Exercise: Commenting a Code

Add comments to the previous exercises explaining what each part of the code does.

These are some fundamental aspects of Rust’s syntax. As you get more familiar with these concepts, writing and reading Rust code will become more intuitive. Please feel free to try out the exercises and let me know if you have any questions or need further clarification!

Moving on, let’s delve into Variables and Mutability in Rust.

Variables and Mutability

In Rust, the mutability of a variable determines whether its value can be changed. By default, variables are immutable, meaning once a value is bound to a name, you can’t change that value.

1. Immutable Variables

  • Declared using let.
  • Attempting to change an immutable variable will cause a compile-time error.

Example: Immutable Variable

fn main() {
    let x = 5;
    println!("The value of x is: {}", x);

    // Uncommenting the line below will cause a compile error
    // x = 6;

Your Exercise: Immutable Variable Error

Try to modify the immutable variable x in the example above and observe the compiler error.

2. Mutable Variables

  • Declared using let mut.
  • Allows the value bound to the variable name to be changed.

Example: Mutable Variable

fn main() {
    let mut y = 5;
    println!("The value of y is: {}", y);

    y = 10; // Value of y is changed
    println!("The value of y is now: {}", y);

Your Exercise: Modify a Mutable Variable

Create a program with a mutable variable. Initialize it with a value, modify it, and then print both the initial and modified values.

3. Constants

  • Declared using const.
  • Always immutable.
  • Type must be annotated.

Example: Constants

const MAX_POINTS: u32 = 100_000;

fn main() {
    println!("The maximum points are: {}", MAX_POINTS);

Your Exercise: Working with Constants

Declare a constant representing the number of days in a week and print its value.

4. Shadowing

  • By redeclaring a variable using let, you can “shadow” the previous value, effectively creating a new variable.

Example: Shadowing

fn main() {
    let x = 5;
    let x = x + 1; // Shadowing the previous value of x

    println!("The value of x is: {}", x);

Your Exercise: Variable Shadowing

Create a program where you declare a variable, and then shadow it with a new value. Print both the initial and shadowed values.

Understanding these concepts about variables and mutability will help you control how and when your data can be changed, a key aspect of writing safe and efficient Rust code. Try the exercises and feel free to ask any questions!

Next, we’ll explore Data Types in Rust.

Data Types

Rust is a statically typed language, which means that it must know the types of all variables at compile time. The two data type subsets in Rust are scalar and compound.

1. Scalar Types

  • Represent a single value.
  • Include integers, floating-point numbers, Booleans, and characters.

Integer Types

  • i32: The default integer type.
  • Other types include i8, i16, i64, i128, and isize (arch-dependent size), along with their unsigned counterparts u8, u16, u32, u64, u128, and usize.

Floating-Point Types

  • f32 and f64 (default).

Boolean Type

  • bool (true or false).

Character Type

  • char: Represents a Unicode scalar value.

Example: Scalar Types

fn main() {
    let int_num: i32 = 100;
    let float_num: f64 = 10.5;
    let is_true: bool = true;
    let char_val: char = 'A';

    println!("Integer: {}, Float: {}, Boolean: {}, Char: {}", int_num, float_num, is_true, char_val);

Your Exercise: Play with Scalar Types

Create a Rust program where you declare variables of each scalar type and print their values.

2. Compound Types

  • Group multiple values into one type.
  • Two primitive compound types: tuples and arrays.

Tuple Type

  • A general way of grouping together a number of values with a variety of types.

Array Type

  • All elements of an array must have the same type.
  • Arrays in Rust have a fixed length.

Example: Compound Types

fn main() {
    let tup: (i32, f64, u8) = (500, 6.4, 1);
    let (x, y, z) = tup; // Destructuring

    let arr = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]; // Array

    println!("Tuple: ({}, {}, {}), Array first element: {}", x, y, z, arr[0]);

Your Exercise: Working with Compound Types

Create a Rust program with a tuple containing different types and an array. Print the values from both the tuple and the array.

Understanding these data types and their nuances is crucial as they form the building blocks of Rust programming. Give these exercises a try, and let me know if you have any questions or need further examples!

Certainly, let’s talk about Strings in Rust.

Strings in Rust

In Rust, strings are more complex than in some other languages due to the language’s focus on safety and efficiency. There are two main string types: String and &str.

1. String Type

  • String is a growable, mutable, owned, UTF-8 encoded string type.
  • It’s the type of string you would use when you need to own or modify your string data.

Example: Creating and Modifying a String

fn main() {
    let mut s = String::from("Hello"); // Creating a String
    s.push_str(", world!"); // Appending to a String
    println!("{}", s);

Your Exercise: Play with String Type

Create a String, modify it by appending another string, and then print the result.

2. String Slices (&str)

  • &str is an immutable sequence of UTF-8 characters.
  • Often seen in function arguments or when referencing parts of a String.

Example: Using String Slices

fn main() {
    let s = String::from("Hello, world!");
    let slice = &s[0..5]; // Taking a slice of the String
    println!("Slice: {}", slice);

Your Exercise: Working with String Slices

Create a String and then use a string slice to print a part of it.

3. String Operations

  • Rust provides various methods to manipulate strings, like push_str, replace, trim, and more.

Example: String Operations

fn main() {
    let mut s = String::from("   Rust is fun!   ");
    s = s.trim().to_string(); // Trimming whitespace
    println!("Trimmed String: '{}'", s);

Your Exercise: Experiment with String Methods

Create a String containing some whitespace and a message. Use string methods to trim the whitespace and then print the trimmed string.

Strings in Rust can sometimes be a bit more complex due to Rust’s memory safety guarantees and UTF-8 encoding, but they provide a lot of flexibility and safety. Try these exercises, and don’t hesitate to ask if you have any questions or need more examples!

Now let’s move on to Functions in Rust.

Functions in Rust

Functions are central to Rust programming. They are used to organize and reuse code. Rust’s function definitions are concise and expressive.

1. Defining Functions

  • Use the fn keyword to define a function.
  • Follow the snake case naming convention for function names.

Example: Basic Function

fn greet() {
    println!("Hello, Rustacean!");

Your Exercise: Write a Simple Function

Create a function named display_message that prints a custom message.

2. Parameters and Arguments

  • Functions can have parameters, which are special variables that are part of a function’s signature.
  • When you call a function, you pass values as arguments.

Example: Function with Parameters

fn add_two_numbers(x: i32, y: i32) {
    let sum = x + y;
    println!("Sum is: {}", sum);

Your Exercise: Function with Parameters

Write a function that takes two parameters, a string and a number, and prints them.

3. Returning Values

  • Functions can return values, and every function in Rust has a return type.
  • The last expression in the function will be used as a return value.

Example: Function Returning a Value

fn multiply(x: i32, y: i32) -> i32 {
    x * y // no semicolon means this is the return value

Your Exercise: Function that Returns a Value

Create a function that takes two floating-point numbers and returns their division. Make sure to handle the division by zero case.

4. Function Overloading

  • Rust does not support traditional function overloading. Each function in Rust must have a unique name.
  • However, you can use traits and generics to achieve similar functionality.

5. Higher-Order Functions

  • Functions that take one or more functions as parameters and/or return a function.

Example: Higher-Order Function

fn apply_function<F>(f: F, x: i32) -> i32
    F: Fn(i32) -> i32,

fn square(x: i32) -> i32 {
    x * x

fn main() {
    let result = apply_function(square, 5);
    println!("Result is: {}", result);

Your Exercise: Higher-Order Function

Write a higher-order function that takes a function and an integer as arguments and applies the function to the integer twice.

Functions in Rust are powerful and versatile. They allow you to write clean and efficient code. Try the exercises, and feel free to reach out if you need help or further clarification!

Moving forward, let’s discuss Ownership and Borrowing, which are fundamental concepts in Rust, crucial for understanding how the language manages memory.

Ownership in Rust

Ownership is a set of rules enforced at compile time that governs how memory is managed in Rust. It’s one of Rust’s most unique features, ensuring memory safety without needing a garbage collector.

1. Rules of Ownership

  • Each value in Rust has a variable that’s called its owner.
  • There can only be one owner at a time.
  • When the owner goes out of scope, the value is dropped.

Example: Ownership and Scope

fn main() {
    let s = String::from("hello"); // s owns the string
    // s is in scope here
} // s goes out of scope and the memory is freed

Your Exercise: Experiment with Ownership

Create a function that takes a string and prints it, then try to use the string after the function call.

2. Transferring Ownership

  • Ownership can be transferred from one variable to another, often termed as moving.

Example: Ownership Transfer

fn main() {
    let s1 = String::from("hello");
    let s2 = s1; // Ownership of the string is moved to s2

    // println!("{}, world!", s1); // This line will cause a compile-time error

Your Exercise: Try Ownership Transfer

Assign a string to a new variable and try to use the original variable.

Borrowing in Rust

Borrowing allows you to access data without taking ownership of it.

1. References

  • Created using the & symbol.
  • They allow you to refer to a value without taking ownership.

Example: Borrowing with References

fn main() {
    let s1 = String::from("hello");
    let len = calculate_length(&s1);

    println!("The length of '{}' is {}.", s1, len);

fn calculate_length(s: &String) -> usize {

Your Exercise: Implement Borrowing

Create a function that borrows an integer and returns its doubled value.

2. Mutable References

  • Allow you to modify something you’re borrowing.
  • Only one mutable reference to a particular piece of data in a particular scope.

Example: Mutable References

fn main() {
    let mut s = String::from("hello");
    append_world(&mut s);

    println!("The string is now: {}", s);

fn append_world(s: &mut String) {
    s.push_str(" world");

Your Exercise: Mutable Reference Modification

Create a mutable integer, borrow it mutably in a function, and modify its value.

Rules of References

  • You can’t have a mutable reference while you have an immutable one.
  • References must always be valid.

Ownership and borrowing are central to Rust’s approach to memory safety and concurrency. Understanding these concepts is key to writing safe and efficient Rust programs. Try out the exercises and let me know if you have any questions or need more information!

In Rust, you don’t need to import the Debug trait from anywhere to use it, as it’s part of the Rust standard library’s std::fmt module and is automatically available.

When you derive the Debug trait for your struct using #[derive(Debug)], Rust takes care of everything behind the scenes. The Debug trait is one of the few traits in Rust that is globally available without needing an explicit use statement to bring it into scope.

So, your code would look like this:

struct Color(i32, i32, i32);

fn main() {
    let black = Color(0, 0, 0);
    println!("Black color: {:?}", black);

Here, the #[derive(Debug)] line automatically implements the Debug trait for the Color struct. You can then use {:?} in the println! macro to print an instance of Color in a format suitable for debugging. This is a very common pattern in Rust for quickly implementing standard traits for custom types.

Why {:?} instead of {}?

In Rust, the {:?} placeholder in the println! macro is used for formatting values using the Debug trait, while {} is used for the Display trait. The key difference between these two traits is in their intended use:

Display Trait ({} Placeholder)

  • Intended for user-facing output, where the format is meant to be clean and readable for end users.
  • Requires manual implementation for custom types, as there’s no default for how your type should be presented to a user.
  • Example: Printing a date in a user-friendly format.

Debug Trait ({:?} Placeholder)

  • Intended for debugging purposes, to inspect values while developing.
  • Can be automatically derived for most types, providing a quick and easy way to make a type printable for debugging.
  • The output format is generally more verbose and not intended to be pretty, but it’s useful for developers to see the internal state of a type.


Here’s an example to illustrate the difference:

struct Person {
    name: String,
    age: u8,

fn main() {
    let person = Person {
        name: String::from("Alice"),
        age: 30,

    // Using Debug formatting
    println!("Debug: {:?}", person);

    // If you try using Display formatting, it will cause a compile error
    // println!("Display: {}", person); // This line will not compile

In this example, Person struct can be printed using {:?} because we derived the Debug trait. If you tried to print Person using {} without implementing Display, it would result in a compile-time error.

The Debug trait is often used during development for quick debugging purposes, as it requires minimal code to get up and running. In contrast, when you want to display information to end-users in a specific format, you would implement the Display trait for your type.

Now, let’s delve into Error Handling in Rust. Error handling is crucial in writing robust and reliable software, and Rust provides a unique approach to managing errors effectively.

Error Handling in Rust

In Rust, there are two main categories of errors: recoverable and unrecoverable errors.

1. Recoverable Errors

  • Represented using the Result type.
  • Result is an enum with the variants Ok and Err.

Example: Using Result

fn divide(numerator: f64, denominator: f64) -> Result<f64, &'static str> {
    if denominator == 0.0 {
        Err("Cannot divide by zero")
    } else {
        Ok(numerator / denominator)

fn main() {
    match divide(10.0, 0.0) {
        Ok(result) => println!("Result: {}", result),
        Err(e) => println!("Error: {}", e),

Your Exercise: Implement Result in a Function

Write a function that reads a number from a string and returns Result<i32, ParseIntError>. Use str::parse.

2. Unrecoverable Errors

  • For serious errors that stop the program, use panic!.
  • The panic! macro causes the program to print an error message, unwind and clean up the stack, and then quit.

Example: Using panic!

fn main() {
    panic!("This is a catastrophic error!");

Your Exercise: Trigger a panic!

Write a program that triggers a panic! with a custom error message.

3. Propagating Errors

  • Returning errors to the calling code using the ? operator.
  • The ? operator is a shorthand for the match expressions that are used to handle Result values.

Example: Propagating Errors

fn read_file_content(file_path: &str) -> Result<String, io::Error> {
    let mut file = File::open(file_path)?;
    let mut contents = String::new();
    file.read_to_string(&mut contents)?;

Your Exercise: Propagate Errors

Write a function that attempts to open a file and read its contents, using the ? operator to handle any errors.

Best Practices

  • Use Result for recoverable errors and panic! for errors that indicate bugs and should stop the program.
  • Utilize the ? operator for cleaner code when propagating errors.

Error handling in Rust is designed to be explicit and robust, minimizing the chances of ignoring potential issues. Practice these exercises to get a good grasp of handling different error scenarios in Rust. If you have any questions or need further explanation, feel free to ask!

The next topic in our Rust journey is Collections. Collections are data structures that can contain multiple values. Rust provides several collections in the standard library, each with different capabilities and use cases.

Collections in Rust

1. Vectors

  • Vectors (Vec<T>) are resizable arrays. They can grow or shrink in size and hold elements of the same type.

Example: Using Vectors

fn main() {
    let mut numbers: Vec<i32> = Vec::new();

    for number in numbers.iter() {
        println!("{}", number);

Your Exercise: Play with Vectors

Create a vector, add some elements to it, and then iterate over the elements to print them.

2. Strings

  • As discussed earlier, the String type is a collection that stores UTF-8 encoded text.

Example: Manipulating Strings

fn main() {
    let mut greeting = String::from("Hello, ");

    println!("{}", greeting);

Your Exercise: Experiment with Strings

Create a String, append some text to it, and then print the result.

3. Hash Maps

  • HashMap<K, V> stores a mapping of keys of type K to values of type V.
  • It’s implemented with a hash table, providing fast lookup times.

Example: Using Hash Maps

use std::collections::HashMap;

fn main() {
    let mut book_reviews = HashMap::new();

    book_reviews.insert("Adventures of Rust", "Great read");
    book_reviews.insert("Rust in Action", "Highly recommended");

    for (book, review) in &book_reviews {
        println!("{}: {}", book, review);

Your Exercise: Play with Hash Maps

Create a HashMap that maps cities to their population. Add some entries and then print the map.

Collections and Ownership

  • Collections in Rust follow the same ownership and borrowing rules as other values.
  • When you store values in a collection, the collection becomes the owner of those values.


  • Choose the collection type based on your use case (e.g., Vec for a dynamic list, HashMap for key-value pairs).
  • Remember to use the standard library’s use statement to bring collections into scope.

Collections are essential tools for handling groups of data. The exercises will help you understand how to use different types of collections and manage their data effectively in Rust. If you have any questions or need more examples, feel free to ask!

The reason you need to use the & sign when looping over the book_reviews HashMap in Rust is related to how Rust handles ownership and borrowing. Let’s break it down:

Ownership and Borrowing in Rust

  • In Rust, values have a single owner.
  • Borrowing allows you to access data without taking ownership of it.

Iterating Over a HashMap

  • When you iterate over a collection in Rust, you’re effectively borrowing each element from the collection for the duration of the loop.
  • Without the &, the loop would try to take ownership of the data in the book_reviews HashMap.

Using & for Borrowing

  • By using &book_reviews in the loop, you are creating an iterator that borrows references to the key-value pairs in the HashMap.
  • This means you’re not taking ownership of the contents of the HashMap, allowing you to read from it without moving the data out of it.

Example Explanation

for (book, review) in &book_reviews {
    println!("{}: {}", book, review);

In this loop:

  • &book_reviews creates a borrow of the HashMap, allowing access to its elements without taking ownership.
  • (book, review) are references to the keys and values in the HashMap.


  • If you didn’t use &, you’d be attempting to take ownership of the contents of book_reviews, which is not allowed in this context.
  • Since HashMap’s iterator yields references to its keys and values, using & ensures that you’re working with these references correctly.

By using &, Rust ensures that the data remains safe and unmodified unless explicitly stated otherwise. This is part of Rust’s design to prevent bugs and ensure safe memory access.

Review Of Everything So Far

Comprehensive review of the topics we’ve covered:

  1. Hello World & Basic Syntax

    • Question: How do you write a “Hello, world!” program in Rust, and what is the purpose of the fn keyword?

    • Answer: The fn keyword is used to define a new function. main is the entry point of a Rust program.

      fn main() {
          println!("Hello, world!");
  2. Variables and Mutability

    • Question: In Rust, what is the difference between mutable and immutable variables? Provide an example of declaring each.
    • Answer:
      • Immutable variables cannot be changed once declared. Example: let x = 5;
      • Mutable variables can be changed. Example: let mut y = 5;
  3. Data Types

    • Question: What are the four primary scalar types in Rust? Create a small code snippet that demonstrates the declaration of each type.
    • Answer:
      • Integer: let int_num: i32 = 10;
      • Floating-point: let float_num: f64 = 10.0;
      • Boolean: let is_true: bool = true;
      • Character: let char_val: char = 'A';
  4. Strings

    • Question: How do you create a String from a string literal, and what is the difference between String and &str in Rust?
    • Answer:
      • Create a String: let s = String::from("hello");
      • String is a growable, heap-allocated data structure whereas &str is an immutable reference to a string slice.
  5. Functions

    • Question: Write a simple function in Rust that takes two integers as parameters and returns their sum. How is a function’s return value specified in Rust?

    • Answer: The function’s return type is specified after the arrow >.

      fn add(a: i32, b: i32) -> i32 {
          a + b
  6. Ownership and Borrowing

    • Question: Explain the concept of ownership in Rust. What happens when you try to use a variable after transferring its ownership?
    • Answer:
      • Ownership is a Rust feature where each value has a single owner. When the owner goes out of scope, the value is dropped. If you transfer ownership of a variable and then try to use the original variable, you’ll get a compile-time error.
  7. Structs

    • Question: Define a Rust struct named Car that has fields for make, model, and year. How would you create an instance of this struct?

    • Answer:

      struct Car {
          make: String,
          model: String,
          year: u32,
      let my_car = Car {
          make: String::from("Toyota"),
          model: String::from("Corolla"),
          year: 2020,
  8. Enums and Pattern Matching

    • Question: Create an enum named TrafficLight with variants for Red, Yellow, and Green. Write a match expression that prints a message for each variant.

    • Answer:

      enum TrafficLight {
      let light = TrafficLight::Red;
      match light {
          TrafficLight::Red => println!("Stop"),
          TrafficLight::Yellow => println!("Caution"),
          TrafficLight::Green => println!("Go"),
  9. Error Handling

    • Question: What is the difference between the Result and Option enums in Rust? Provide an example of a function returning a Result.
    • Answer:
      • Result is used for recoverable errors and contains Ok or Err variants.

      • Option is used when a value could be either Some or None.

      • Example:

        fn divide(numerator: f64, denominator: f64) -> Result<f64, &'static str> {
            if denominator == 0.0 {
                Err("Cannot divide by zero")
            } else {
                Ok(numerator / denominator)
  10. Collections

    • Question: Create a Vec<i32> and demonstrate how to add elements to it. How do you access the third element of this vector?

    • Answer:

      let mut vec = Vec::new();

    The next topic on our Rust journey is Modules and Crates.

    Modules and Crates in Rust

    In Rust, modules and crates are fundamental to organizing code. They help manage the growing complexity of programs and ensure reusability and privacy.

    1. Crates

    • A crate is a package of Rust code. It’s the largest unit of compilation in Rust.
    • There are two types of crates:
      • Binary Crates: Executables.
      • Library Crates: Libraries of code intended to be shared by multiple projects.

    Example: Creating a Crate

    • Create a new crate using Cargo, Rust’s package manager:

      cargo new my_crate

    Your Exercise: Create a New Crate

    Use Cargo to create a new crate and explore the generated directory structure.

    2. Modules

    • Modules let you organize code within a crate into groups for readability and easy reuse.
    • They also control the privacy of items, which is public or private to the module.

    Example: Defining Modules

    mod front_of_house {
        mod hosting {
            fn add_to_waitlist() {}
    mod back_of_house {
        fn fix_incorrect_order() {}

    Your Exercise: Organize Code into Modules

    Create a crate with modules representing different components, like front_of_house and back_of_house.

    3. Using Modules

    • You can use items from a module with the use keyword.

    Example: Using Items from Modules

    mod front_of_house {
        pub mod hosting {
            pub fn add_to_waitlist() {}
    use crate::front_of_house::hosting;
    fn main() {

    Your Exercise: Utilize Modules in a Program

    Use functions or structs from your modules in a Rust program.

    4. Paths to Refer to Items

    • Items in modules can be referred to using absolute or relative paths.
    • Absolute paths start from the crate root. Relative paths start from the current module.

    5. Public and Private

    • By default, all items (functions, methods, structs, enums, modules, and constants) in Rust are private.
    • Use the pub keyword to make items public.

    Your Exercise: Experiment with Public and Private Items

    Create public and private functions in a module and try to access them from outside the module.

    Best Practices

    • Use crates and modules to organize your code logically.
    • Carefully consider what to make public to present a clear, usable public API.

    Modules and crates are key to writing scalable and maintainable Rust code. They allow you to create clear hierarchies and control how different parts of your code interact. Try out the exercises to understand how to structure Rust projects effectively. If you have any questions or need more examples, feel free to ask!

    Next, we’ll explore Traits and Lifetimes in Rust, which are essential for writing reusable and maintainable code.

    Traits in Rust

    Traits in Rust are a way to define shared behavior across different types. They are similar to interfaces in other languages.

    1. Defining Traits

    • Traits define a set of methods that types can implement.

    Example: Defining a Trait

    trait Describable {
        fn describe(&self) -> String;

    Your Exercise: Define a Trait

    Create a trait named Printable with a method print that doesn’t return anything.

    2. Implementing Traits

    • You can implement a trait for any type using the impl keyword.

    Example: Implementing a Trait

    struct Circle {
        radius: f64,
    impl Describable for Circle {
        fn describe(&self) -> String {
            format!("A circle with radius {}", self.radius)

    Your Exercise: Implement a Trait

    Implement the Printable trait for a struct representing a book with title and author.

    3. Trait Bounds

    • Trait bounds specify that a generic type must implement a certain trait.

    Example: Using Trait Bounds

    fn output_description<T: Describable>(item: T) {
        println!("{}", item.describe());

    Your Exercise: Use Trait Bounds

    Write a generic function that takes an argument with the Printable trait and calls its print method.

    Lifetimes in Rust

    Lifetimes in Rust can be a bit challenging to grasp at first, but they’re a crucial part of the language’s approach to memory safety. Let’s break it down for a better understanding.

    What are Lifetimes?

    Lifetimes are a Rust compile-time feature used to ensure that references are valid for as long as they are needed. They are about connecting the lifespans of various references and data in Rust.

    Why Lifetimes?

    The primary goal of lifetimes is to prevent dangling references, which occur when a reference points to memory that has been deallocated or is no longer valid.

    How Lifetimes Work

    1. Implicit and Explicit Lifetimes
      • Most of the time, Rust infers lifetimes without requiring explicit annotation.
      • When lifetimes are ambiguous or complex, Rust requires you to annotate them explicitly to determine how long references should be valid.
    2. Lifetime Syntax
      • Lifetimes are annotated with an apostrophe (') followed by a lowercase name (like 'a, 'b).
      • A lifetime annotation doesn’t change how long any of the references live. It describes the relationships of the lifespans of multiple references to each other.
    3. Lifetime in Function Signatures
      • When a function has references as parameters or return values, lifetimes help ensure that the data referenced by those references won’t go out of scope before the function is done with them.

    Example Explained

    Let’s revisit the longest function example:

    fn longest<'a>(x: &'a str, y: &'a str) -> &'a str {
        if x.len() > y.len() { x } else { y }
    • <'a> is a lifetime parameter declaration. It says that all the references in the arguments and the return value must have the same lifetime 'a.
    • In this context, 'a denotes the lifetime of the shortest of the two string slices x and y. The function signature guarantees that the returned string slice will not outlive either of the slices passed to the function.

    Understanding Lifetimes in Structs

    For structs holding references, lifetimes ensure that the data referenced by the struct is valid for the life of the struct.

    struct Book<'a> {
        title: &'a str,
        author: &'a str,
    let my_book = Book {
        title: "Rust Programming",
        author: "Jane Doe"
    • The Book struct has two references, both with the same lifetime 'a.
    • This means title and author references in any instance of Book must live as long as the instance itself.

    Key Takeaways

    • Lifetimes are a part of Rust’s type system, primarily concerned with managing the lifespans of references.
    • They don’t affect performance or runtime behavior but ensure safety at compile time.
    • Lifetimes are about ensuring that references are valid as long as necessary and no longer.

    I hope this explanation helps clarify lifetimes in Rust. If you have specific scenarios or examples you’d like me to explain, or if there’s any part of the concept that’s still unclear, please let me know!

    Check this video out if you are still having trouble understanding lifetimes in Rust.

    The next important topic in Rust is Concurrency. Rust’s approach to concurrency is designed to be safe and efficient, leveraging its ownership and type system to prevent common concurrency pitfalls like data races.

    Concurrency in Rust

    Concurrency in Rust is mainly achieved through two paradigms: threads and asynchronous programming.

    1. Using Threads

    • Rust provides a way to run code in parallel by spawning threads.

    Example: Spawning Threads

    use std::thread;
    fn main() {
        let handle = thread::spawn(|| {
            for i in 1..10 {
                println!("hi number {} from the spawned thread!", i);
        for i in 1..5 {
            println!("hi number {} from the main thread!", i);
    • This code spawns a new thread and runs a loop in it while the main thread also runs a loop.

    Deeper Dive Into The Spawning Threads Example

    The handle.join().unwrap(); line in the Rust threading example is crucial for managing thread execution and error handling. Let’s break down what it’s doing:


    • handle is a JoinHandle. When a new thread is spawned using thread::spawn, it returns a JoinHandle. This handle is an ownership type that can be used to control the child thread.
    • .join() is a method called on the JoinHandle. What it does is wait for the associated thread (the child thread) to finish its execution. In other words, it blocks the current thread (which is generally the main thread) until the child thread completes.
    • This is important for synchronization purposes. Without .join(), the main thread might finish executing before your child thread has a chance to run or complete. By calling .join(), you ensure that the main thread will wait for the child thread’s task to finish.


    • .join() returns a Result type. The Result type is an enum in Rust that represents either a success (Ok) or a failure (Err).
    • .unwrap() is a method that can be called on a Result type. It does two things:
      • If the Result is an Ok, .unwrap() will return the value inside the Ok.
      • If the Result is an Err, .unwrap() will cause the program to panic and exit. In the context of threads, an Err usually means the child thread has panicked.
    • Using .unwrap() is a way to assert that you expect this operation (waiting for the thread to finish) to succeed and not to encounter any errors. If an error does occur, the program will panic, providing an immediate signal that something went wrong.

    Example Usage

    let handle = thread::spawn(|| {
        // Thread work here
    // Wait for the thread to finish and handle any potential errors


    • While .unwrap() is convenient for examples and small programs, in production code, it’s often better to handle errors more gracefully than causing a panic. You might use pattern matching or error handling methods like .expect() with a custom error message.
    • The use of .join() ensures that your main program doesn’t exit prematurely, giving your threads the necessary time to complete their tasks.

    Your Exercise: Experiment with Threads

    Write a Rust program that creates several threads, each printing something different, and synchronize their execution.

    2. Thread Safety and Shared State

    • Rust’s ownership rules play a significant role in ensuring thread safety, particularly when sharing state between threads.

    Example: Sharing State with Mutex

    use std::sync::{Arc, Mutex};
    use std::thread;
    fn main() {
        let counter = Arc::new(Mutex::new(0));
        let mut handles = vec![];
        for _ in 0..10 {
            let counter = Arc::clone(&counter);
            let handle = thread::spawn(move || {
                let mut num = counter.lock().unwrap();
                *num += 1;
        for handle in handles {
        println!("Result: {}", *counter.lock().unwrap());
    • This code demonstrates the use of Mutex (mutual exclusion) and Arc (atomic reference counting) to safely share and modify data between threads.

    Deep Dive Into Sharing State with Mutex Example

    Let’s break down this Rust code piece by piece to understand how it handles concurrency with threads, shared state, and synchronization.

    Overview of the Code

    This code is a multi-threaded Rust program that demonstrates how to safely share and update a piece of data (counter) across multiple threads using an Arc (Atomic Reference Count) and a Mutex (Mutual Exclusion).

    What is Arc?

    • Arc<T> stands for Atomic Reference Counted. It’s a type that enables multiple threads to own a piece of data and ensures that the data outlives all of its owners.
    • It’s used for shared ownership of a value with thread-safe reference counting.
    • In this context, Arc is used to share the counter (which is a Mutex) between multiple threads.

    What is Mutex?

    • Mutex<T> is a mutual exclusion lock. It allows only one thread at a time to access the data it guards.
    • When a thread wants to read or write the data, it must first acquire the mutex’s lock. This ensures that only one thread at a time is modifying the shared data, preventing race conditions.

    Understanding the Code

    Spawning 10 Threads

    for _ in 0..10 {
        let counter = Arc::clone(&counter);
        let handle = thread::spawn(move || {
            // Thread work here
    • Yes, this loop is spawning 10 threads.
    • Arc::clone(&counter) creates a new reference to the same Arc instance, allowing the shared counter to be safely used across multiple threads.
    • thread::spawn starts a new thread and returns a JoinHandle.

    Mutating the Shared State

    Inside each thread:

    let mut num = counter.lock().unwrap();
    *num += 1;
    • counter.lock() attempts to acquire the lock on the mutex. If the lock is not available (i.e., another thread has locked it), the current thread will wait until it can acquire the lock.
    • .unwrap() is used here to handle the Result returned by lock(). If the mutex is poisoned (i.e., a thread panicked while holding the lock), unwrap() will cause a panic.
    • Once the lock is acquired, the code increments the value inside the mutex (num += 1).

    Locking Mechanism

    • counter.lock() is a critical part. When called, it attempts to acquire the mutex lock. If the mutex is already locked by another thread, it will block the current thread until the lock becomes available.
    • The locking mechanism ensures that only one thread can modify the shared counter at a time, preventing data races.

    Final Counter Read

    println!("Result: {}", *counter.lock().unwrap());
    • At the end of the main function, counter.lock().unwrap() is called again to safely access the final value of the counter.
    • This is not just reading the value; it’s also acquiring the lock. But since all threads have completed (ensured by handle.join().unwrap()), the main thread can safely acquire the lock and read the final value.
    • The lock is automatically released when the lock guard (num) goes out of scope.


    • The program creates a shared counter protected by a mutex, wrapped in an Arc for shared ownership.
    • It spawns 10 threads, each incrementing the counter.
    • Mutex ensures that only one thread at a time can access the counter, preventing race conditions.
    • Arc allows the shared state to be safely owned by multiple threads.
    • At the end, the program prints the total count after all threads have finished executing.

    Your Exercise: Share State Between Threads

    Create a program where multiple threads update a shared piece of data, ensuring access to the data is synchronized.

    3. Asynchronous Programming

    • Async programming in Rust allows for non-blocking execution, which is essential for IO-bound and high-concurrency applications.

    Example: Basic Async Function

    async fn perform_task() {
        println!("Performing a task...");
        // Perform task
    async fn main() {
    • This is a simple example of an async function in Rust. Note that a runtime like tokio is often used to run async code.
    • #[tokio::main] is a macro, more on this later.

    Add tokio to Your Cargo.toml

    Open your Cargo.toml file and add tokio as a dependency. Make sure to enable the features you need. For basic async functionality, you can enable the full feature, which includes most of the commonly used utilities:

    tokio = { version = "1", features = ["full"] }

    The full feature flag is a convenience for enabling all public features of tokio. Depending on your project’s specific needs, you may choose to enable only specific features.

    Fetch URL

    To write a simple asynchronous Rust program that fetches data from a URL using tokio and reqwest (a popular asynchronous HTTP client), you’ll need to add both tokio and reqwest to your dependencies.

    Step 1: Update Cargo.toml Dependencies

    First, add tokio and reqwest to your Cargo.toml:

    tokio = { version = "1", features = ["full"] }
    reqwest = "0.11"

    This will include the necessary crates in your project.

    Step 2: Write the Async Program

    Then, write your async program. Here’s an example where the program fetches data from an example URL:

    use tokio;
    use reqwest; // Import reqwest for making HTTP requests
    #[tokio::main] // Use the Tokio runtime
    async fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn std::error::Error>> {
        // Define the URL
        let url = "";
        // Make an asynchronous HTTP GET request
        let response = reqwest::get(url).await?;
        // Await the response body to be fully downloaded
        let body = response.text().await?;
        // Print the response body
        println!("Response body:\\n{}", body);


    • #[tokio::main]: This macro sets up the Tokio runtime and converts the main function into an async function.
    • reqwest::get(url).await?: Sends an HTTP GET request to the specified URL asynchronously. The await keyword is used to wait for the response. The ? operator is used for error handling.
    • response.text().await?: Fetches the response body as text asynchronously.

    Step 3: Run the Program

    Run the program using cargo run. This will execute the async task to fetch data from the specified URL.

    Async programming with network requests can involve more detailed error handling and response parsing, depending on your specific requirements.

    Your Exercise: Write Async Code

    Write a simple asynchronous Rust program that performs some IO-bound tasks, like fetching data from a URL.

    Best Practices

    • Use threads for CPU-bound tasks and async programming for IO-bound work.
    • Always be mindful of data races and deadlocks when sharing state across threads.
    • Leverage Rust’s type system and ownership rules to write safe, concurrent code.

    Concurrency in Rust is powerful but requires a good understanding of Rust’s safety principles. Try out these exercises to get a feel for writing concurrent Rust code. If you have any questions or need more examples, feel free to ask!

    The next topic we’ll explore is Macros in Rust. Macros are a powerful feature in Rust that allow you to write code that writes other code, known as metaprogramming. They are used to reduce code repetition and improve maintainability.

    Macros in Rust

    1. What are Macros?

    • Macros are a way of writing code that generates other code, which is then compiled and executed.
    • They are different from functions in that they operate on the code itself, not on the runtime values.

    2. Declarative Macros with macro_rules!

    • The most common type of macro in Rust is a declarative macro, which you can define using macro_rules!.
    • These macros look like function calls but are more flexible and powerful.

    Example: Simple Declarative Macro

    macro_rules! say_hello {
        () => {
    fn main() {
        say_hello!();  // This will print "Hello!"
    • In this example, say_hello! is a macro that, when invoked, expands to a call to println!("Hello!");.

    Declarative macros can be designed to accept various types of arguments, similar to functions. Here’s an example of a macro that takes one argument and prints it out:

    Example: Declarative Macro with an Argument

    macro_rules! print_value {
        ($value:expr) => { // The $value:expr captures an expression
            println!("The value is: {}", $value);
    fn main() {
        let x = 42;
        print_value!(x); // This will print "The value is: 42"

    In this example:

    • macro_rules! is used to define the macro.
    • print_value is the name of the macro.
    • The macro takes one argument, represented as $value:expr. Here, $value is a placeholder for the input, and :expr means it expects an expression.
    • Inside the macro, the $value is used in a println! statement.

    Explanation of the Macro Parts

    1. Pattern Matching: Macros use pattern matching to define how they behave. The ($value:expr) part is a pattern that matches any valid Rust expression and binds it to $value.
    2. Expansion: The { println!("The value is: {}", $value); } is what the macro expands into. It replaces $value with the provided expression.
    3. Usage: In main, when we write print_value!(x);, the macro is expanded at compile time to println!("The value is: {}", x);.

    3. Procedural Macros

    • Procedural macros allow for more complex and flexible transformations of the code.
    • They come in three kinds: custom #[derive] macros for struct/enum, attribute-like macros for any item, and function-like macros that look like function calls.

    Example: Custom Derive Macro

    // Assume we have a custom derive macro defined elsewhere
    struct MyStruct {
        field: i32,
    • Procedural macros require a separate crate type, often called a “macro crate”.

    4. Using Macros

    • Macros can be used for various tasks like generating repetitive code, implementing domain-specific languages, or embedding resources at compile time.

    Best Practices

    • Don’t Overuse: Macros can make code harder to read and debug, so use them judiciously.
    • Maintainability: Favor functions over macros for functionality that doesn’t require code generation.
    • Documentation: Document your macros well, especially if they are part of a public API, as their usage is not always straightforward.

    Creating a procedural macro in Rust is a bit more involved than a declarative macro, as it requires setting up a separate crate. Procedural macros allow for more complex and flexible transformations of the code at compile time.

    This video tutorial is also very helpful.

    Setting Up for a Procedural Macro

    1. Create a New Library Crate

    You need to create a new library crate specifically for the procedural macro.

    • Create a new crate with cargo new my_macro --lib

    • In the new crate, change the crate type to a procedural macro crate in Cargo.toml:

      proc-macro = true

    2. Add Dependencies

    In the Cargo.toml of your macro crate, add syn and quote as dependencies. These crates are commonly used to parse and generate Rust code:

    syn = "1.0"
    quote = "1.0"
    proc-macro2 = "1.0"

    Writing a Simple Procedural Macro

    3. Define the Macro

    In your macro crate’s, define a simple procedural macro:

    extern crate proc_macro;
    use proc_macro::TokenStream;
    use quote::quote;
    use syn;
    pub fn say_hello(input: TokenStream) -> TokenStream {
        // Parse the input tokens into a syntax tree
        let _input = syn::parse_macro_input!(input as syn::LitStr);
        // Generate the output tokens
        let output = quote! {
            println!("Hello, world!");
        // Convert the `quote!` output into a TokenStream

    This macro doesn’t do much with its input and always generates code to print “Hello, world!“.

    Using the Procedural Macro in Another Crate

    4. Add the Macro Crate as a Dependency

    To use this macro, add the macro crate as a dependency in another crate:

    my_macro = { path = "../my_macro" }

    5. Use the Macro

    In the main crate, use the macro as follows:

    use my_macro::say_hello;
    say_hello!("ignored input");
    fn main() {
        // This will print "Hello, world!" when run

    Important Notes

    • Procedural macros can be of three types: function-like (as shown here), derive, or attribute macros.
    • They work by processing the provided Rust code and generating new code to replace it.
    • The syn crate is used for parsing Rust code into a data structure that you can manipulate, and quote is for turning syn data structures back into Rust code.


    Macros in Rust provide a powerful way to do metaprogramming, but they come with complexity. They’re best used when you need to reduce code repetition in ways that can’t be easily achieved with functions or when you need to perform complex code generation tasks. As you get more comfortable with Rust, experimenting with macros can help you understand the depth of what the language can offer.

    Moving on, let’s explore Integration with Other Languages in Rust, specifically focusing on Foreign Function Interface (FFI). FFI is a way for programming languages to define functions and enable them to be called from other languages. In Rust, this feature allows you to call functions written in other languages, like C, and vice versa.

    Foreign Function Interface (FFI) in Rust

    1. Calling C Functions from Rust

    Rust can call functions written in C. This is often done for performance reasons or to use existing C libraries.

    Example: Using a C Function in Rust

    Suppose you have a C library with the following function:

    // In a C header file, like "my_c_library.h"
    int add(int x, int y) {
        return x + y;

    To call this function from Rust:

    1. Link the C Library: Specify the C library in your Cargo.toml.

    2. Declare the External Function in Rust:

      extern "C" {
          fn add(x: i32, y: i32) -> i32;
      fn main() {
          unsafe {
              println!("The sum is: {}", add(2, 3));
      • Use extern "C" to declare the external function.
      • Wrap calls to external functions in unsafe blocks, as Rust can’t guarantee the safety of foreign code.

    2. Calling Rust Functions from C

    You can also expose Rust functions so they can be called from C.

    Example: Exposing Rust Function to C

    In Rust, declare a function with #[no_mangle] and pub extern "C":

    pub extern "C" fn add(x: i32, y: i32) -> i32 {
        x + y
    • #[no_mangle] prevents Rust from changing the name of the function during compilation.
    • pub extern "C" makes it accessible from C code.

    In C, you can declare and call this function:

    // In a C file
    int add(int x, int y);
    int main() {
        int result = add(2, 3);
        printf("The sum is: %d", result);
        return 0;

    Example: Practial Example Of Calling a C Function

    To call a C function from Rust using FFI (Foreign Function Interface), you’ve followed a series of steps which can be summarized as follows:

    1. Add a Build Script:

      You’ve added a file in your Rust project. This build script uses the cc crate to compile the C code and link it into your Rust project. The script looks like this:

      fn main() {
      • cc::Build::new(): Creates a new instance of the cc build configuration.
      • .file("vendor/sum.c"): Specifies the path to your C source file.
      • .compile("sum"): Compiles the C file and links it into your Rust project under the name sum.
    2. Update Cargo.toml:

      In your Cargo.toml, you’ve made the following additions:

      • Included the script to ensure it is executed when your project is built:

        build = ""
      • Added the cc crate as a build dependency, which provides the functionality to compile C code:

        cc = "1.0"
    3. Add the C Library in vendor/sum.c:

      You’ve created a C file sum.c in the vendor directory. This file contains the implementation of the sum function:

      #include <stdint.h>
      // Public function to sum two integers
      int32_t sum(int32_t a, int32_t b) {
          return a + b;
      • This function takes two int32_t integers, sums them, and returns the result.
    4. Declare the FFI in Rust:

      In your Rust code, you’ve declared a module to interface with the C function:

      use core::ffi::c_int;
      extern "C" {
          fn sum(a: c_int, b: c_int) -> c_int;
      pub fn ffi_c_example() {
          println!("------ Running the FFI with C example ------");
          unsafe {
              let result = sum(5, 10);
              println!("The sum is: {}", result);
      • use core::ffi::c_int;: Using c_int from the core FFI module to ensure type compatibility with the C function.
      • extern "C" block: Declares the external C function sum with the appropriate function signature.
      • unsafe: The call to the external C function is wrapped in an unsafe block because FFI calls are inherently unsafe in Rust.
      • ffi_c_example: This function demonstrates calling the sum function and printing the result.

    By following these steps, you’ve successfully set up a Rust project to call a function written in C via FFI. This process involves setting up a build script to compile the C code, linking it to the Rust project, and then declaring and using the C function in Rust code.

    3. Safety Considerations

    • FFI can introduce safety issues, as other languages don’t have the same guarantees as Rust. Always wrap foreign calls in unsafe blocks.
    • Be cautious with data types and ensure they match on both sides. Misaligned types can cause undefined behavior.

    4. Use Cases

    • FFI is used for interoperability with existing libraries written in other languages, like C.
    • It’s also used when certain functionality is not available or performant in Rust.


    FFI in Rust is a powerful feature that allows Rust to interoperate with other languages, broadening the scope of what can be achieved. It’s particularly useful in situations where you need to leverage existing libraries or functionalities from other languages. However, it requires careful handling to maintain the safety and correctness of your program.

    The next topic we’ll explore is Testing in Rust. Testing is a crucial part of software development, ensuring that your code works as expected and helping to prevent future regressions. Rust has a powerful set of tools built into the language and its standard library for writing and running tests.

    Testing in Rust

    1. Unit Tests

    • Unit tests are small tests that focus on testing one function or module in isolation.
    • They are typically written alongside your code in the same files.

    Example: Writing a Unit Test

    In a Rust file, you might have a function and a test for it:

    fn add_two(a: i32) -> i32 {
        a + 2
    mod tests {
    		// This makes everthing available in the parent scope
        // available in this mod tests scope!!
        use super::*;
        fn it_adds_two() {
            assert_eq!(add_two(2), 4);
    • The #[cfg(test)] attribute tells Rust to compile and run the test code only when you run cargo test, not when you build the project.
    • #[test] marks a function as a test.
    • assert_eq! is an assertion macro that ensures the function outputs the expected value.

    2. Integration Tests

    • Integration tests are external to your library and use your code in the same way any other code would.
    • They are typically placed in a directory named tests at the top level of your crate.

    Example: Writing an Integration Test

    Create a file in a tests directory:

    // tests/
    use my_crate;
    fn it_works() {
        assert_eq!(my_crate::add_two(2), 4);
    • This test calls a function from your crate and checks its output.

    3. Test Organization

    • Tests can be split into unit and integration tests. Unit tests are small and more focused, while integration tests cover your crate as a whole.
    • It’s a good practice to write both types of tests to ensure your code works as expected in isolation and when integrated with other parts.

    4. Running Tests

    • Use cargo test to run your tests. Cargo compiles your code and runs all tests, reporting the results.

    Best Practices

    • Write tests as you write your code (“test-driven development”) to ensure each part of your code is tested as it’s written.
    • Use descriptive test names and assertions to make it clear what each test is checking.
    • Regularly run your tests as you develop to catch any regressions or issues early.


    Testing in Rust is an integral part of the development process, providing a robust way to ensure code quality and reliability. Rust’s built-in testing tools make it straightforward to write and run tests, helping to build confidence in the code you write.